Jul 13, 2024  
2023-24 ATSU University Catalog 
2023-24 ATSU University Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Arizona School of Health Sciences


Welcome to the Arizona School of Health Sciences and A.T. Still University. As a new student you are joining a proud University with a long history of educating healthcare professionals ready to deliver quality, compassionate, whole person healthcare. The Arizona School of Health Sciences, one of 7 schools of A.T. Still University, has recently celebrated its 27th year. We continue to educate and graduate outstanding students through our rigorous and innovative programs within the Physical Therapy, Athletic Training, Physician Assistant Studies, Occupational Therapy, Speech-Language Pathology, and Audiology professions. 

The Arizona School of Health Sciences currently houses 13 degree programs spanning the spectrum of graduate education in the health professions from entry level masters and doctorate degrees to post professional degrees, to residency programs. As a school we are dedicated to your success and strive to create a learning centered environment that supports you on your educational journey. 

On behalf of the administration, faculty and staff, I welcome you again and wish you every success in your academic endeavors.

Ann Lee Burch, PT, MPH, EdD
Dean, Arizona School of Health Sciences

Program Accreditation

The Doctor of Audiology (AuD) education program (residential) at the A.T. Still University – Arizona School of Health Sciences is accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2200 Research Boulevard, #310, Rockville, MD 20850, Phone 800.498.2071 or 301.296.5700.

The accreditation from the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association pertains to the Entry Level Doctor of Audiology Program at A.T. Still University.

The Occupational Therapy program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA): ACOTE c/o Accreditation Department, American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), 4720 Montgomery Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20824-1220, phone 301-652.2682. ACOTE Website: www.acoteonline.org

The residential Doctor of Physical Therapy program at A.T. Still University of Health Sciences is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE), 1111 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314; telephone: 703-684-2782; email:  accreditation@apta.org; website: www.capteonline.org.

The Master of Science (MS) education program in speech-language pathology (residential) at A.T. Still University-Arizona School of Health Sciences is a Candidate for Accreditation by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA) of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2200 Research Boulevard, #310, Rockville, MD 20850, 800-498-2071 or 301-296-5700. Candidacy is a “preaccreditation” status with the CAA, awarded to developing or emerging programs for a maximum period of 5 years.

The Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant (ARC-PA) has granted Accreditation-Continued status to the Physician Assistant Program sponsored by A.T. Still University Arizona School of Health Sciences. Accreditation-Continued is an accreditation status granted when a currently accredited program is in compliance with the ARC-PA Standards. Accreditation remains in effect until the program closes or withdraws from the accreditation process or until accreditation is withdrawn for failure to comply with the Standards. The approximate date for the next validation review of the program by the ARC-PA will be March 2024. The review date is contingent upon continued compliance with the Accreditation Standards and ARC-PA policy. The address and telephone number of this agency is 12000 Findley Road, Suite 275, Johns Creek, GA, 30097; 770.476.1224, Fax: 770.476.1738.

State Licensing

Please see the State Licensing section under About ATSU  for information related to degree-granting authority by The Arizona State Board for Private Postsecondary Education and A.T. Still University’s participation in nc-SARA.

Contact ASHS

A.T. Still University - Arizona School of Health Sciences
5850 E. Still Circle
Mesa, AZ 85206
Ann Lee Burch, PT, MPH, EdD
Marlene B. Salas-Provance, PhD, MHA, CCC-SLP
Vice Dean & Professor
Tabitha Parent-Buck, AuD
Professor, Chair, Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology
Tamara Valovich McLeod, PhD, ATC, FNATA
Professor, Chair, Athletic Training
Kellie Bliven, PhD, ATC
Professor, Chair, & Program Director, Interdisciplinary Health Sciences
Rebecca Wolf, JD, MPH, OTR/L
Associate Professor, Chair, Occupational Therapy
Michelle DiBaise, DHSc, PA-C, DFAAPA
Professor, Chair, Physician Assistant Studies
Lori M. Bordenave, PT, DPT, PhD
Professor, Chair, Physical Therapy
Mellissa Conrad
Executive Assistant to the Dean

ATSU-ASHS School Policies

The following policies or guidelines apply to all programs at ATSU-ASHS.

General Admission Requirements

The following requirements apply to every program and must be met by every applicant to be considered for admission.

Application Process

The Arizona School of Health Sciences (ATSU-ASHS) offers many programs in the areas of athletic training, audiology, occupational therapy, physician assistants, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology. Specific application information is included with each program.

Applicants who wish to be considered for more than one program must submit a separate application and fee, official test scores (if applicable), transcripts, and references for each health sciences program. Acceptance to ATSU-ASHS is to a specific program and is not transferable to other programs. Application materials are not transferable from one application year to another.

English Proficiency

All students are required to demonstrate proficiency in English when applying to the Arizona School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University.

Written and reading proficiency in the English language may be demonstrated by one of the following options:

  • Option 1 - English is my first language
  • Option 2 – Graduated from a college or university accredited by a U.S. Department of Education institutional accreditor (minimum B.A. or B.S.).
  • Option 3 – You are demonstrating your English proficiency by submitting acceptable scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Testing Service (IELTS)
    • Acceptable TOEFL minimal scores for ATSU-ASHS applications are:
      • Internet based total score = 80
    • Acceptable IELTS scores are an overall band score of 6.5

Note: some programs may require TOEFL sub score minimums. Please refer to the individual program website or catalog page to determine if sub scores are required.

The TOEFL is administered by TOEFL/TSE Services, PO Box 6151, Princeton, NJ, 08541-6151, USA (609) 771-7100. Information is available on the Internet at www.toefl.org and A.T. Still University’s institutional code is 0339.

International Student Admission

All online ATSU-ASHS programs may accept international students. 

Select ATSU-ASHS residential programs are approved by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Student and Exchange Visitor Program to issue I-20 paperwork to non-immigrant students in order to apply for an F-1 Visa. To determine if a program is F-1 visa approved, please see the program’s admission requirements section of this catalog. 

Prior to application, all applicants should review the program information in this catalog for program-specific requirements and contact Admissions for current information on the application process.

The Doctor of Audiology, Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Occupational Therapy, Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies, Master of Science in Occupational Therapy, and the Master of Science in Speech-Language Pathology are residential entry level programs and are approved by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Student and Exchange Visitor Program to issue I-20 paperwork to non-immigrant students in order to apply for an F-1 Visa. 

The Doctor of Medical Science, Post-Professional Doctor of Audiology, Post-Professional Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Athletic Training, and the Master of Science in Athletic Training are online programs and open to international applicants. Please review admissions requirements for each program prior to applying. For the Doctor of Athletic Training program, ATSU is not authorized to issue I-20 paperwork for the required on-site two-week Winter Institute component of this program.

Foreign Evaluation Services

Applicants who have graduated from a non-US college or university must submit acceptable evidence of U.S. degree and/or course equivalency. For several ATSU-ASHS online programs, applicants must have foreign transcripts evaluated by specific evaluation service organizations specializing in foreign transcript evaluation. The evaluation must state that the transcript(s) reflect an equivalency of a U.S. degree.

Below is a list of credentialing agencies. Please check with Admissions to verify which agencies are acceptable to the specific program for which you are applying. An official copy of the transcript evaluation must be provided to Admissions.

Educational Credential Evaluators, Inc.
P.O. Box 514070
Milwaukee, WI 53203-3470
International Education Research Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 66940
Los Angeles, CA 90066
Josef Silny & Associates, Inc.
7101 SW 102 Avenue
Miami, FL 33171
World Evaluation Service Inc.
P.O. Box 745 Old Chelsea Station
New York, NY 10113-0745
International Credentialing Associates, Inc.
7245 Bryan Dairy Road
Largo, FL 33777
International Consultants of Delaware
P.O. Box 8629
Philadelphia, PA 19101-8629
Foreign Credentialing Commission on Physical Therapy
124 West Street South, 3rd Floor
Alexandria, VA 22314

University of Texas at Austin Robert Watkins
Graduate and International Admissions Center
2608 Whitis Avenue
Austin, TX 78712
(Credential Reviews for Texas only)

Selection of Applicants

The Admissions Committee for each program seeks those individuals capable of meeting the academic standards of ATSU-ASHS and its programs. Completed applications in compliance with minimum admission requirements are reviewed on the basis of some or all of the following areas: the quality of academic performance, professional exposure, work and life experiences, and recommendations.

The Admissions Committee reserves the right to accept, reject, or defer any application. Applicants are notified following the Committee’s decision on their status. Successful applicants are granted a specified time period to notify the Admissions Department of their intention to enroll. After acceptance, matriculation is subject to the satisfactory completion and verification of all academic and admission requirements.

Transfer Credit

Transfer credit is accepted on a case-by-case basis and per program requirements.

Advanced Credit

Petitions for advanced credit in other programs must be submitted using the Application for Advanced Standing Credit form to the Admissions Department. All transcripts, admission forms, and supporting documentation must be completed and received by the University before advanced credit will be considered.

Minimal Technical Standards for Admission and Matriculation

Statement of Diversity and Inclusion

Diversity and inclusion encompass an authentic understanding and appreciation of difference and, at their core, are based upon the value each human being brings to our society and each person’s access and opportunities to contribute to our University’s cultural proficiency.

A.T. Still University of Health Sciences is committed to equal access for all qualified applicants and students. Minimal Technical Standards for Matriculation (the “Standards”) state expectations of ATSU students. The Standards provide sufficient information to allow the candidate to make an informed decision for application. Minimal Technical Standards for Matriculation are a guide to accommodation of students with disabilities. Academic adjustments can be made for disabilities in some instances, but a student must be able to perform in a reasonably independent manner. Applicants and current students who have questions regarding the technical standards, or who believe they may need to request academic adjustment(s) in order to meet the standards, are encouraged to contact Learning Resources & Accommodation Services. Procedures to apply for academic adjustments are found at the conclusion of this policy.

The holder of a health sciences professional degree must have the knowledge and skills to function in a broad variety of clinical situations and to render a wide spectrum of patient care. In order to carry out the activities described below, candidates for a degree in Athletic Training, Audiology, Human Movement, Health Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, Physician Assistant Studies, and Speech-Language must be able to consistently, quickly, and accurately integrate, analyze, and synthesize data.

A candidate for a Doctoral or Master of Science degree at ATSU-ASHS must possess abilities and skills in seven identified categories, including observation; communication; motor; sensory; strength, mobility and endurance; intellectual, (conceptual, integrative, and quantitative); and behavioral and social. These abilities and skills are defined as follows:

Observation: Candidates and students must have sufficient uncorrected or corrected visual acuity, depth perception, and color perception to be able to observe demonstrations, experiments, and laboratory exercises in the basic and clinical sciences. They must be able to observe a patient accurately at a distance of 20 feet and up close. Vision must be sufficient to utilize clinical instrumentation; identify dissected nerves and landmarks on anatomical structures such as the tympanic membrane; observe motion; and evaluate posture, locomotion and movement in a clinical setting. Adequate visual capabilities are necessary for proper evaluation and treatment integration, including the assessment of symmetry, range of motion, and tissue texture changes.

Communication: Candidates and students must possess formal and conversational speech and language skills in English. The must be able to write, read and comprehend classroom lecture and assessment materials, technical reports, diagnostic and treatment reports and professional correspondence in English. They must be able to speak, hear (with or without the use of amplification and/or other assistive technology), and observe patients in order to elicit information; examine and treat patients; describe changes in mood, activity, and posture; and perceive nonverbal communication. They must be able to communicate effectively and sensitively with patients. They must be able to communicate effectively in oral and written form with all members of the healthcare team.

Motor: Candidates and students must have sufficient motor functions to execute movements required to perform laboratory exercises and provide clinical care. Such actions require coordination of both gross and fine motor movements and equilibrium, and functional use of the senses of touch and vision.

Sensory: Candidates and students must have functional use of sensory skills such as tactile discrimination and proprioception for classroom, laboratory and clinical experiences. Functional use of hearing and vision are also required and are described in sections above.

Strength, mobility and endurance: Candidates and students must have sufficient upright posture, balance, flexibility, mobility, strength and cardiovascular endurance for standing, sitting, lifting moderate weight and participating in classroom, laboratory and clinical experiences.

Intellectual (conceptual, integrative, and quantitative): Candidates and students must be able to engage in activities of discovery, measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis, and synthesis. Problem solving, the critical skill demanded of health professionals, requires all of these intellectual abilities. In addition, candidates and students should be able to comprehend three-dimensional relationships and understand the spatial relationships of structures.

Behavioral and social: Candidates and students must possess the emotional health required for full utilization of their intellectual abilities, the exercise of good judgment, the prompt completion of all academic requirements and responsibilities attendant to the diagnosis and care of patients. Candidates and students must be able to develop mature, sensitive, and effective relationships with patients. Candidates and students must be able to adapt to changing environments, display flexibility, and learn to function in the face of uncertainties inherent in the clinical problems of many patients. Compassion, integrity, concern for others, respect for differences, interpersonal skills, interest, and motivation are all personal qualities that will be assessed during the admission and educational processes.

Additional Information

Please see the Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies  and Physical Therapy (Residential), DPT  sections for program-specific minimal technical standards.

Records and communications regarding disabilities and academic adjustments with the Director of Learning Resources & Accommodation Services have no bearing on the application process. You may contact the director at Learning Resources & Accomodation Services, A.T. Still University of Health Sciences, 800 W. Jefferson Street, Kirksville, MO 63501, accommodations@atsu.edu, or by phone at 660.626.2774.

Applying for Academic Adjustments

The institution remains open to possibilities of human potential and achievement, providing support for students with disabilities. The Vice President for Student Affairs is responsible for the administration of and compliance with the Technical Standards and Academic Adjustments Policy (ATSU Policy #20-110) through the Director of Learning Resources & Accommodation Services. Please see the University Student Handbook for information on how to apply for academic adjustments, or email accommodations@atsu.edu.

Immunizations, Immunity, Screening and Certification for ATSU-ASHS Residential Programs

ATSU-ASHS requires all students to provide proof of their immunizations, immunity, screening and certifications in order to matriculate and also prior to the deadline set by the program. This is necessary for the protection of the student, faculty and staff, as well as the protection of any individuals with whom they come in contact.  It is the responsibility of the student to maintain up-to-date immunization protection throughout the entire duration of enrollment. Non-compliance at any time during a student’s enrollment could result in removal for clinical rotations, removal from didactic courses, suspension and/or dismissal. All testing and certifications are at the cost of the student. Additional immunizations, titers, or screenings may be required per individual clinical site specifications. Documents related to immunizations, immunity, screening and certification will be maintained and monitored by ATSU-ASHS Clinical Affairs Office.

Immunizations must be verified by providing copies of immunization records from a US licensed Physician (DO or MD), Physician Assistant (PA) and/or Nurse Practitioner (NP).  All copies must contain:

  • Student name
  • Student date of birth
  • Name of clinic/office immunization was received including address and phone number
  • Name of provider at the clinic/office immunization was received
  • Date of immunization received
  • Report of results for immunity or screening

Any non-US immunization records are not acceptable. All non-US immunization records must be translated, documented and approved by a US licensed Physician (DO or MD), Physician Assistant (PA) and/or Nurse Practitioner (NP). 

ATSU-ASHS Student Risk Management requirements are updated annually and therefore subject to change.

CPR - Certification for BLS/Basic Life Support Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Certification

  • Certification must be the BLS Provider or Healthcare Provider level certification. Individual programs may have additional requirements.
  • Must be Adult & Child AED level certification
  • First Aid Certification does NOT meet this requirement

Hepatitis B

  • Documentation of two (2) dose series of Heplisav-B or three (3) dose series of Engerix-B, Recombivax or Twinrix Hepatitis B vaccine. Series must be started prior to matriculation and completed per prescribed timeline.  
  • OR documentation of a positive blood test (titer) of immunity to Hepatitis B

MMR - Measles Mumps and Rubella

  • Documentation of two (2) dose series of MMR vaccine. Series must be started prior to matriculation and completed per prescribed timeline.
  • OR documentation of a positive of immunity to each of Measles Mumps and Rubella
  • Physical Exam
    • Documentation of a physical exam within twelve (12) months of matriculation 
    • This is a pre-matriculation requirement only, however a clinical site may require additional examinations. 

Tuberculosis (TB) Testing

  • Documentation of a negative two (2) step PPD skin test or one (1) negative QuantiFERON TB Gold or T-Spot blood test within twelve (12) months of matriculation 
  • OR documentation of a normal/clear chest x-ray AND documentation of the previous positive testing results. The chest x-ray is accepted only with evidence of a prior positive skin or blood test result.
  • This is an annual testing requirement. 

Tdap - Tetanus Diphtheria and Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

  • Documentation of one (1) adult dose of Tdap vaccine within ten (10) years of matriculation 
  • DPT (infant dose) or Td vaccinations do NOT meet this requirement

Varicella – Chicken Pox

  • Documentation of two (2) dose series of varicella vaccine. Series must be started prior to matriculation and completed per prescribed timeline
  • OR documentation of a positive immunity to Varicella
  • History of this disease does NOT meet this requirement

COVID-19 Vaccine & Booster

  • Documentation of completion of a series of EUA (Emergency Use Authorization) or FDA approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccine prior to matriculation.
  • For more information, please see The COVID-19 Vaccine Policy for Students  in the ATSU Policies section of this catalog.

Influenza – Post-matriculation requirement

  • Documentation of seasonal Influenza vaccination - DUE ANNUALLY BY OCTOBER 1st 
  • This is an annual requirement for the duration of enrollment
Immunization Exemptions

For medical conditions or religious beliefs, a request for exemption from Risk Management requirements will be considered. However, ATSU cannot guarantee the ability to participate in patient encounters and placement in clinical rotations if this exemption is granted. Consequently, students receiving an exemption from vaccine requirements may take longer to complete the curriculum and graduate, or the student may not be able to complete the curriculum and graduate. Students seeking exemptions should submit the Request for Exemption from ATSU Vaccination Requirement form. If students are granted immunization exemptions, they must acknowledge the above risks by signing and submitting to ATSU-ASHS Clinical Affairs Office an Immunization Exemption Risk Acknowledgement and Additional Disclosures and Requirements form.

Injuries and Accidents


Any student who sustains an injury or bloodborne pathogen exposure while on their clinical experience must notify their site preceptor as soon as possible.  Student Incident Process OFF CAMPUS guidelines for treatment and reporting are provided on Google Drive/ASHS-Shared Documents. See ASHS Procedure 01-20 Needlestick & Bloodborne Pathogen for additional information.


 Any student who sustains an injury or bloodborne pathogen exposure while on ATSU campus must notify their instructor and ATSU security as soon as possible. Student Incident Process ON CAMPUS guidelines for treatment and reporting are provided on Google Drive/ASHS-Shared Documents. See ASHS Procedure 02-20 Needlestick & Bloodborne Pathogen for additional information.

Minimum Technology Specifications

Residential Programs

Please review the minimum technology specifications for students accepted to ATSU-ASHS programs.

Online Programs

Please review the minimum technology specifications for students accepted to ATSU-ASHS programs.

Auditing a Course

The following information pertains to currently enrolled ATSU-ASHS students.

Requests to audit a course should go to the program director or chair of the department under which the course is offered and to the program director or chair of the student’s department, if different. All requests must be approved in writing.

Students may be allowed to sit in class and may participate only on a space available basis.

Students who audit a course are expected to attend classes on a regular basis. Satisfactory completion of a course for audit will be determined by the instructor and will be recorded on the student’s transcript as an AU (audit) or other appropriate indicator. No letter grade will be awarded for an audited course.

An audited course may not be changed to a course for credit or vice versa.

Questions concerning the audit policy should be directed to the student’s program director or department chair.


ATSU-ASHS programs adhere to the University grading scale .

Incomplete Grades

ATSU-ASHS programs adhere to the University Incomplete Grade Policy .

Appealing a Grade

Students who wish to file an academic appeal concerning a course grade should visit the Academic Appeals policy  located within the ATSU Policies section of the Catalog.

Academic Warning

Students demonstrating unacceptable performance in any unit of study during any phase of their program may be notified of such performance by the instructor of the course, program director or department chair as soon as it becomes evident. The student may be notified verbally or in writing that continued poor academic performance could lead to academic probation and dismissal. The instructor will also discuss the resources available to students for academic assistance.

Academic Probation

The quality of an educational program can be measured by the academic performance of its students. With regard to academic performance, standards are set to insure that the integrity of the program and institution are maintained. Consistent with academic norms and in the exercise of professional judgment, each ATSU-ASHS department shall determine and shall provide to students (1) the standards of academic performance and (2) the standards of progression.

A student who fails to meet the department’s standards of academic performance will be placed on academic probation and shall be notified of such, in writing, by the relevant department chair. Such notice shall identify the academic standards which the student has failed to meet and will advise the student that continued failure to meet such standards may result in delay in graduation or dismissal. Copies of any academic probation notice shall be sent to the Dean and Enrollment Services.

Academic Dismissal

Any student who does not meet the department’s standards for progression will receive a written notice of dismissal from the department chair. Decisions regarding dismissal are made on an individual basis consistent with academic norms and in the exercise of professional judgment after considering all pertinent circumstances. The department chair’s decision will be based on a recommendation from the department faculty, the student’s academic record, department standards of progression and information from the student and other individuals as appropriate. The department chair will notify the student and Dean of the decision, which notice shall describe the significant facts and reasons for dismissal. The student has the right to appeal the decision as outlined in the appeal process.

Dismissal Appeal Process

Dismissal by a department may be appealed, in writing, to the Dean no later than seven calendar days following receipt of notification of the department chair’s decision of dismissal. Such notice of appeal from the student shall include a statement of reasons why dismissal is inappropriate. The Dean shall review the notice of dismissal, notice of appeal, significant facts and reasons for dismissal in light of the department’s standards of progression, academic norms and professional judgment. The Dean may meet in person with the student if indicated and shall notify the department chair and student of the decision no later than seven academic days following receipt of the student’s appeal. Such notice shall describe the basis for the decision.

The highest level of appeal within the school is the Dean or Dean’s designee. Students who wish to appeal a Dean’s decision regarding promotion or dismissal should review the Academic Appeals Policy: Promotion and/or Dismissal Decisions .

Degree Completion

Students are expected to complete their degree within the program’s standard plan of study. In circumstances where additional time is needed, and with approval of the appropriate chair, students will have a maximum degree completion timeline of five (5) years for a master’s program and seven (7) years for a doctoral program from the time of initial enrollment. Failure to complete a degree program within the specified period will lead to a loss of some or the entire student’s previously earned course credits, or dismissal from the program.

Required Modules

HIPAA Training

ATSU-ASHS requires that all residential students complete Health Information Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA) training. ATSU-ASHS provides a detailed review of HIPAA and focuses on the patient privacy and data security issues that will have the most impact on the practice of healthcare workers. HIPAA education provides a definition and discussion of current and forthcoming HIPAA initiatives regarding patient privacy and data security, a review of reforms that have been identified for implementation and the information to help healthcare workers comply with new guidelines. Training is offered online by ATSU and must be completed prior to any clinical education.

Bloodborne Pathogens Training

Universal precautions and blood borne pathogens training will be provided to ATSU-ASHS students. Universal precautions and blood borne pathogens training must be updated annually and whenever necessary to reflect new or modified tasks and procedures which affect occupational exposure and reflect changes in technology that eliminate or reduce exposure. Universal precautions and blood borne pathogens training must be completed and documented prior to entering any clinical education.


All faculty and students who use the anatomy laboratory will be instructed on the potential hazards and understand the steps to be taken in the event that injury or accidents occur. See Policy Manual for Hazardous Materials and Personal Safety.

Departments and Programs